The defeat of the veins of the lower limbs are extremely widespread. The disease is subject to more than 25% of the inhabitants of the planet. Varicose veins worthy of note is the appearance of cardiovascular mesh on the hips, ankles, heaviness in the legs. Knowing what are the dangerous complications causes varicose veins of the lower limbs: the formation of trophic ulcers, the risk of sudden death from thrombosis of the pulmonary artery, each person must take care of their own health and to analyze, it is not included in the risk group, if there are the first signs of varicose veins.
The causes of the disease
Vienna – the blood vessels, so the blood products and the sharing of tissues and the carbon dioxide goes to the heart. A distinctive feature of their walls – lower content of elastic fibers. In the case of violation of the current of the blood occurs the extension of the lumen of the veins are elongated, the Plasma goes into the surrounding tissues, is impaired circulation in the small blood vessels. The blood is pumped into the veins of the lower limbs thanks to the work of the muscles. The reflux leaving the valves. During the expansion of the level valves are not doing their task. The changes of the venous wall, the surrounding tissue determines the development of the clinical disease. The only discriminating factor for the onset of varicose veins of the lower limbs – genetic inferiority structure of the vascular wall. Varicose veins is associated with reduced synthesis of the protein collagen. There are predisposing factors:
- the excess of weight;
- changes in hormone levels, causes relaxation and expansion of the venous wall (pregnancy);
- diseases and conditions that cause disturbances of the current of blood and the defeat of the walls of the veins (diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, thrombophilia);
- poor diet, with the disadvantage of proteins, consumption of food, causing fluid retention and constipation;
- long stay in a sitting position;
- activities associated with a long find, in the standing position;
- wear high-heeled shoes;
- the use of corsets and tight underwear;
- heavy physical work;
- surgical operations.
The symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs
It is important to have an idea about the main symptoms of varicose veins of the lower limbs.
- Change the appearance of superficial veins. On the feet and on the legs, it is possible to notice the first signs of defeat, as well as pumping of blood from there also suffers from the debut of the disease. The initial signs of varicose veins – the appearance of small vascular "stars". This extension of the network of veins, appearing as small dark purple or livid "octopus". Such indication can be a symptom of varicose veins, but more often it reports its first manifestations.
- The typical symptoms of varicose veins on the legs you refer to, aspect phases, thick, large veins around that "runs" the network is smaller, the contours that are blue or purple color. If you examine the photos of the varicose veins of the lower limbs, this is a sign that is visible to the naked eye. As the disease progresses, the breach will be visible above – on the thighs.
- The pain and heaviness in the legs. Patients with varicose veins emphasize the appearance by arching muscle pain the leg after the load on the lower limbs (walk, long walk in the foot) by palpation of the muscles of the calf unpleasant feeling increasingly strong.
- After the holiday and stay in a horizontal position, the pain and heaviness you are withdrawing, but when I get back to my routine again to make himself known. This complex of symptoms with varicoso has received the name of syndrome of "heavy legs". During the night hours, discomfort, cramps in the calf of the leg. If the examination does not detect changes of the surface ships, it must be assumed veins the defeat of the deep veins.
- The swelling of the legs begins in the field stop, then the swelling rise above, when a man realizes that the shoes in the evening becomes more narrow, difficult to button bootleg of boots. This symptom varicoso more pronounced after loads of work, in the evening. Should pay attention to the condition of the legs after a night of sleep – unfavourable prognostic consider saving a swelling in the morning. This means that varicose veins will be compensated. Expressed disorders of blood circulation leading to the development of complications. Swelling in the lower stages of the limbs can accompany the itching of the skin.
- The pigmentation of the skin during the direction of the veins, around them, in places of accidents. The subcutaneous tissue swells and compacted (skin). Perhaps the desquamation and the dryness of the skin. The violation of nutrition of the skin comes the thinning, the foot; the shin to acquire cyanotic shadow.
- Violation of trophic (feeding) with the decrease of the temperature of stopping, patients complain of cold feet.
- The wounds on the background of oedema of the legs appear as patches of skin with irregular borders. This complication, which speaks to the long-term current of disease.
The clinical picture is varicose veins, and distinguish the 3 phases.
- Compensation. Unpleasant sensations are not there or are minimal. In the case of prolonged stay in the feet can be uncomfortable. On the skin patients may notice the appearance of varicose veins, which are formed due to dilation of capillaries. If the edema stop, then speed up after the rest.
- Subcompensated. During the inspection the subcutaneous vienna stretched, and to be manipulated like thick ropes. It appears the clinic of varicose vein disease: patients complain of a sense of human fullness in the lower part of the leg. Swelling occur at the end of the day, or after loading, and disappear after rest. At night discomfort muscle cramps. Possible neurological symptoms: numbness of the skin, "goose bumps".
- Failure. In this phase varicoso swelling does not disappear after sleep or rest in a supine position, gradually rising above. Long leads to the rupture of the nutrition of the skin. Becomes thinning, dry, hair fall, appear to be pockets of hyperpigmentation. The subcutaneous tissue sealed. Even slight damage to heal difficult ulcers to form.
The degree of chronic venous insufficiency
Long for varicose veins and causes the appearance of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Go for degrees to bind with the appearance of pathological symptoms. Spread the following classification:
- 0 the degree of characterised by the absence of clinical manifestations;
- 1 degree is characterized by the presence of the syndrome of "heavy legs";
- with 2 degrees of swelling to bring the character fair, begins the involvement of the skin, subcutaneous tissue (hyperpigmentation skin);
- 3 degrees of venous disease chronic vascular disease become pronounced, leading to the formation of venous ulcers leg.
Not reimbursed by the varicose veins, in violation of the outflow due to the expansion of the lumen of the veins leads to the development of complications. When you see the formidable symptoms should immediately consult a doctor.
- Thrombophlebitis. The slowing of blood flow causes a thickening of the blood, vascular wall with varicose veins become more fragile. These conditions lead to the formation of parietal blood clots, sometimes completely obstruct the lumen of the vein. Downstream thrombophlebitis is: acute, subacute, and chronic. The most brilliant runs spicy version of the increase of temperature, pain on movement, varicose veins, swelling. To the touch the foot becomes colder. With the defeat of the superficial veins may be palpable to detect areas of pathologic extension. On the skin are visible and the red stripes.
- Deep vein thrombosis calf. Complication varicose veins is manifested not once, the patients can get used to the swelling of the calf muscle pain, and leave the symptoms without attention. Often the clot and the vein to close completely. The complication is the most dangerous margin of a blood clot and drift in the pulmonary circulation. In this case, can develop fatal pulmonary embolism.
- Trophic ulcer. The violation of the outflow due to the expansion of the lumen of the veins varicose veins leads to changes in trophic. These ulcers difficult to correct. Become port of entry for secondary infection.
- The hemorrhage. Varicose veins causes weakness in the walls, break down mild injury. Bleeding are: spontaneous, traumatic, subcutaneous or external.
Worsening of varicose veins occurs because of various reasons. He relates:
- Thickening of the blood due to the loss of moisture, poor regime of drinking. Most vividly this is why "worked" during the summer months, with a consequent deterioration in modified veins.
- Changes in hormone levels. The progesterone relaxes the walls of the veins during the pregnancy. Increases the weight of the body, you experience physiological changes in blood composition – this is why expectant mothers are at risk of worsening of varicose veins.
- The increase in body mass. The workload increases, occurs with varicose stopped the flow of blood.
- The appearance of obstacles in the pelvic area. Compression of the blood vessels occurs during pregnancy or tumors of the abdominal cavity.
Aggravation flows as a reinforcement available symptoms of varicose veins or the appearance of new and more heavy signs. Any changes in the health of the veins, it is necessary to pay attention, in time to identify the causes of deterioration and start to fight with them.
Promptly started the treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs compensates for the disease and preventing the dreaded complications.
The conservative treatment of varicose veins includes the application of compression stockings and the appointment of medicines. Compression stockings are divided into preventive and curative. This linen for the house functions as an external frame. Pressing the foot, the intent is to help the outflow of blood from the veins of the limbs. The degree of compression (compression) linen selected on the basis of that activity, which must deal with its wear and tear. Quote knitwear prevents the appearance of signs of disease or slows its development. Therapeutic divided into 4 classes according to the degree of compression depending on the severity of varicose veins. Recommendations for the selection gives flebologo. The pharmacological treatment of varicose veins does not cure the disease, but only slows down its development, and prevents the deterioration. Drugs used topically or systemically, act on:
- the venous wall lead tone and prevents its extension;
- the state of the blood – drugs that reduce the viscosity of the blood, prevent the occurrence of thrombosis;
- for the relief of pain during varicose veins prescribed local pain relievers in the form of ointment.
The surgical treatment
The surgical treatment of varicose veins allows to eliminate the mechanism of onset of the disease. The development of intervention techniques that allows you to give up hard interventions, leading to the emergence of a strong cosmetic defect and for a long time the management of patients in a hospital bed. More and more developing techniques that you can perform without prolonged hospitalization. Manipulation carried out step by step under ultrasound guidance.
Stripping. The operation in varicose veins is to make 2 incisions that can avoid in vienna, one of which is introduced into a probe. Fixed the wire to one end of vienna, after it was removed together with the direction of the district. Depending on the location of to distinguish between short-and long-stripping.
Laser coagulation. With this technique of struggle with varicose veins through a puncture of the skin in the skin vienna injected to laser welding between its walls.
Echo-guided sclerotherapy. In vienna and is administered by injection of the drug, and of his hardening. If after the first handling of the liquidation of the varices and advanced vessel is not completely blocked, it is re-used.
Scleroobliteration – potted inserts a catheter through which in the ground it comes from the substance sclerosant, which leads to the degradation of the walls of the veins and closure of its level.
Varicose veins of the lower limbs – is not only a problem of aesthetic character. It is a serious disease that requires prompt initiation of therapy.