Varicose veins — a systemic disease that can affect blood vessels in any part of the body. Its essence consists in the dysfunction of the valves that control the direction of the current of the blood. Because of this, there is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the veins, under the action of which the walls are stretched and lose their elasticity.
Often doctors edition to sharpen the focus on the symptoms and treatment of varicose veins in the legs, as well as this type of disease is considered to be the most common: according to statistics over 80% of all cases of varicose veins occur exactly on the lower limbs. However, despite this, for most patients, the diagnosis of varicose veins of the legs is always a surprise, and its discovery occurs in the later stages. All of this indicates a lack of awareness of the people about the dangers that brings varicose veins.
The characteristics, the causes and mechanism of development of varicose veins of the legs
The main characteristic of varicose veins of the legs is in its vastness. The changes are of the surface and in the depth through your veins on the long-haul. As well as the legs are large enough and long-lasting load, the valves in the circulatory system may begin to weaken still in its infancy. Accordingly, the identification of the varicose veins on the legs often occurs in young people and girls.
For the lower limbs is typical of such a phenomenon, as hidden varicose veins: on the background of expressed changes of the veins and unpleasant symptoms are not visible signs of the disease. So the disease is about a third of all the cases recorded in the phases of execution.
To perform an effective treatment of varicose veins and knots on the legs, the doctor must discover its causes. As well as, even when using drastic methods 80% of patients can recurrence of varicose veins, particular attention must be reduction of the impact of the processes causing varicose veins factors. These include:
- hereditary predisposition — in fact uncontrollable factor which, however, it is possible to brake standard and prevention programs;
- the physical impact — the greater the stress on the legs (a lot of standing and sitting, the habit of crossing the legs, excess weight, lifting weights);
- the physiological consequences — changes-hormonal and hormonal drugs (often oral contraceptives), metabolic disorders, lack of physical activity;
- pathological causes — chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys, lesions and systematic shooting of the soft tissues of the lower limbs, tumors, squeeze your vienna in the abdominal cavity.
Depending on the location of the veins doctors distinguish different types of varicose veins on the legs:
- Surface. It expresses the advent of a bluish color or the red of the mesh in the foot, reminiscent of the first web, and then plexus quite thick, winding lines.
- Deep. It expresses the defeat was not visible during the inspection of the external vascular plexuses. Pain in the veins of the lower limbs with varicoso this type is more intense, the higher the risk of complications.
- Combined, when the change in the exposed and shallow, and the superficial veins.
To establish the causes of varicose veins of the legs and its resolution are closely related. First of all, it is important to exclude factors, have the greatest negative impact on the state of the veins.
For the diagnosis of venous thrombosis major change to differentiate them with other diseases. For example, varicose veins below the knee, it just looks like a cyst Becker, and is accompanied by similar symptoms.
The appearance of the first signs of varicose veins on the legs occur in advanced stages, when the venous valves perform their function at less than 50%. On the first or freezing stage of varicose veins, which is known as the "phase of payment", of the unpleasant feelings does not occur, and how visible changes. The detection of the initial stage of varicose veins on the legs occurs when a careful examination of the limbs phlebology.
In the second stage of varicose veins, which is known as the "subcompensated", the changes are expressed quite well:
- under the skin are visible the outlines of the large veins, but they may not act on the surface of the skin;
- on the surface of the skin on the hips and below the knees are clearly visible, thin figure of varicose veins mesh of capillaries, blue or red color;
- in the evening, the legs become swollen;
- at night the calf muscles, cramps in feet.
This stage of varicose veins of the lower limbs characterizes the growing symptoms, which is in decline after the rest.
In the final stage of varicose veins happens failure: the body is not able to bridge the needs of the tissues of oxygen, and the valves in the veins 90% lose their function. The state of the arts, is decaying due to insufficient blood supply. For this stage of varicose veins is typical of the reduction of the capacity of tissues to regenerate. The abundance of complications worsens the general condition of the patient. The symptoms in the final stage of varicose veins is kept constant.
The most common and early symptom of varicose veins — leg pain at the end of the day. Appears when you edit the deep and superficial blood vessels, and is a signal that it is not enough a good blood supply to the soft tissues. In some cases, the pain is the only symptom of varicose veins deep veins of the lower limbs. When you change the surface of blood vessels indicates the development of the disease is the appearance of varicose veins of the jersey in the feet, which often only creates discomfort aesthetic.
The pain of varicose veins in different stages of development of the illness can vary:
- in the initial phase, you feel a slight discomfort, which recalls the normal tiredness;
- with the progression until the second phase appears with a burning sensation in the legs from the varicose veins, which often is located below the knee back;
- pull the pain in the varicose veins of the lower limbs accompanied by 2 and 3 stage of the disease, together with this can occur cramps in the calf;
- acute pain, causing lameness occur in the final stages of the disease.
In addition explicit physical discomfort disease is accompanied by external changes. The majority of patients complains, that have itchy legs with varicose veins is considered to be a normal phenomenon, which testifies to processes of ischemic. Thin varicose veins mesh, which almost does not bother the early stages, with the time, acts as stronger, turning into a dense interlacement of vessels thick. Any physical activity, including coughing, sneezing, or a long walk, can lead to breakage increased capillaries, and sometimes, and veins. The blood is poured out under the skin, forming a hematoma.
The presence of bruises on the legs with varicose veins testifies to the stable progression of disease, excessive traction and assottigliamenti veins.
The appearance of red spots on legs with varicose veins, peeling of the skin, its assottigliamenti and predisposition to injury testifies to the atrophic processes, which are characteristic for the final stages of the disease. Of complications testifies redness of the tibia, which is accompanied by severe pain and lameness. This symptom is typical for phlebitis and thrombophlebitis. If the patient becomes black leg, is indicative of a severe venous congestion and the beginning of processes necrotic.
The ease of diagnosis of varicose veins of the veins of the legs exaggerated, as it is not always the blood vessels cover a surface. To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor must keep a visual check and carry out a series of instrumental examinations:
- duplex ULTRASOUND of the lower limb — in the case of varicose veins it applies the first to determine the degree of stretching of the vascular walls, the nature of the blood flow and detect blood clots;
- x-ray of limbs with contrast — accordance with the functional survey with varicose veins of the lower limbs, which allows to determine the permeability of the blood vessels;
- Magnetic RESONANCE imaging — the gold standard of modern diagnostic varicose veins of the lower limbs, which enables you to evaluate the functionality of the venous valves, identify pockets of ischemia, soft tissue, detect blood clots and other pathological changes arising in the background of varicose veins.
To clarify the complete picture of the disease prescribe laboratory tests: koagulogrammou for the evaluation of the risk of thrombosis, the municipality and the biochemical analysis of blood.
The treatment of varicose veins in the legs takes care of flebologo. After you have determined the level of pathological alterations of the doctor collects the most effective, in his opinion, the methods of therapy. Unfortunately, to get rid of varicose veins mesh on the legs does not work, as well as the systemic disease, and also the modern methods of treatment give leave and long-term, but is not 100% resistant live.
According to the statistics, even after the use of techniques of radical treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs 80% of patients within 5 years, the case of a relapse.
In the initial stages of varicose veins on the legs treatment is preferably conservative. Its basis is the use of local and system medications:
- anticoagulants, reducing the viscosity of the blood and the nutrition of the tissues;
- agents, anti-platelet, reduce the risk of thrombosis and improve the trophism of the tissues;
- venotonic to prevent a further elongation of the veins, reduce swelling and inflammation.
The expression of discomfort in the varicose veins of the veins of the legs, to prescribe NSAIDS. Drugs in this group help to reduce pain, prevent the development of complications.
What to do if the itching in varicose veins of the legs does not give you sleep, do regular things and makes you nervous? It is worth the try ointments, or gel with cooling effect. They do not affect the veins and do not help to cope with the illness, but pretty quickly removed the symptom.
In addition to the conservative treatment, doctors often use methods for complete treatment of varicose veins of the lower limbs, when even with the therapy of exposure using minimally-invasive and surgical interventions. This scheme is applied with intense symptoms and the wide dissemination of the network venous. Which measurements to take and what to do if varicose veins on the legs it suddenly begins to make progress, decides to flebologo. He considers all aspects of the development of the disease, the individual characteristics of the body and health problems, that may be contraindications to determine procedures.
What methods to use to resolve the abnormal blood vessels:
- Laser coagulation. Applies, if varicose veins are passed to 2 and 3 stages, namely in the presence of small "star" on the surface of the skin. A method that is painless and effective, but expensive. 100% guarantee of cure is not there, as well as the resolution of visible blood, while the causes of the disease are saved. Used in the early stages to eliminate cosmetic defects.
- The sclerotherapy. Thin and medium-thick blood injected sclerosant, which closes the lumen of the vein, excluded from the system of the circulation of the blood. Painless procedure and relatively inexpensive, but has a lot of contraindications. Used for 1, 2 and sometimes 3 phase.
- Flebectomia — classic excision of the diseased veins through punctures or cuts on the skin. This method removes surface varicose veins on the hips and on the legs. After surgery, visible scars, however, operation is only effective when the execution of the forms of varicose veins.
Performance of surgical or minimally invasive intervention does not mean eliminating varicose veins. The patient should attend regularly, phlebologist, the intake of medicines to maintain the tone of veins and wear a compression garment.
Experts attribute contraindications in varicose veins on the legs any actions that may cause further stagnation in the blood vessels of the lower limbs. He refers to:
- the long stay in static poses;
- lifting of weights;
- seat with put or crossing the legs.
Even when he was sick it would be advisable to avoid the intake of alcohol, which helps to improve the blood viscosity and relaxes the walls of blood vessels. Adversely affect the course of the disease can and structure. Therefore, after the diagnosis, it is necessary to abandon bad habits.
Thrombosis and inflammatory processes in the walls of veins, which have been mentioned previously, is not the only thing of varicose veins on the legs dangerous for the patient in terms of complications. Due to circulation problems are affected not only blood vessels, but also of the soft tissues, then, in which the consequences of varicose veins on the legs are mentioned, the problems with the muscles and the skin cover:
- dermatitis is accompanied by skin rashes, lesions, ulceration of the skin, itching;
- eczema, accompanied by cracking of the cover of the skin;
- necrotic changes of the skin up to the formation of gangrene;
- muscular atrophy (sma).
Often with progression of the disease and excessive tension of the walls of the blood vessels, the patient runs the risk of variceal bleeding sclerotherapy of varicose veins of the lower limbs. Can be closed, when the blood accumulates in the muscles and under the skin and form a hematoma, or outdoors. The second option is a full loss of large amounts of blood and the onset of coma, especially if the patient is taking agents, antiaggregants, and anticoagulants.
This complicate the varicose veins of the lower limbs can lead not only to trauma, but a small physical effort, for example, a cough or a sudden movement.
In a number of the most dangerous complications for the health of varicose veins of the lower limb is including pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction. They occur because of the separation of a blood clot in the femoral artery and its migration in the system blood flow in the coronary and pulmonary vessels. The mortality rate in these processes is very high, then the patient is important to always follow for the well-being and the urgency to seek medical attention if breathing is difficult breathing and chest pain.